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Heaven & Hell In Asia

  • Along with birth, death is among the main parts of human life. Many have included a god of death into their religion. Deities related with death take a number of different forms, depending on the specific religion and culture. In religious texts, resurrection deities, deities of the underworld, and Psychopomps are commonly called death deities.


  • In polytheistic religions which have an intricate system of deities controlling different natural phenomena and features of human life, it’s usual to have a deity who is allotted the job of controlling death.
  • In the doctrine of monotheistic religion, the one god controls both death and life. Nevertheless, practically this manifests in different traditions and rituals and differs according to traditions, politics, geography and the impact of other religions.

Death deities

Hindu mythology

  • Yama
  • Varuna
  • Kali
  • Mara
  • Chitragupta
  • Yamaduta

Babylonian mythology

  • Ereshkigal, 1st lady of the Underworld
  • Nergal, 2nd lord of the Underworld

Chinese mythology

Emperor(s) of Youdu (Capital City of the Underworld)

  • Jiang Ziwen
  • Yama (Buddhist/Chinese Yama)
  • Wang Yuan
  • Yin Changsheng

Kings of the Ten Underworld Palaces

  • Huang Xile
  • Dong Ji
  • Bao Zheng
  • Chiang Ziwen

  • The remaining just have surnames including Xue, Lu, Bi, Yu, and Li.

Four Kings of the Underworld

  1. Kou Zhun
  2. Fan Zhongyan
  3. Han Qinhu
  4. Bao Zheng

Ghost Kings of the Five Regions

  • Zhou Qi
  • Duzi Ren
  • Zhang Heng
  • Zhao He
  • Cai Yulei

Ghost Kings of the 5 Regions (Ver.2)

  • Immortal Wang
  • Ji Kang
  • Yan Di (Shenlong)
  • Yang Yun
  • Shen Cha

Governors of Fengdu

  • Ji Ming
  • Deng Ai

Imperial Censor of Fengdu

  • Tu Cha
  • Wu Lun
  • Guan Yu (Different from the renowned general of 3 kingdoms)
  • Song Youqing
  • Ma Zhong
  • Jiao Zhongqing
  • Zeng Yuanshan
  • Han Yi

Four Generals of the Direct Alter of Fengdu

  1. Guo Zhongyou
  2. Chen Yuanbo
  3. Ma Chuanzhong
  4. Ma Sheng

Eight Generals of the Inner Alter of Fengdu

  1. Sang Tongguai, Guardian of the North Gate
  2. Lie Weizhi, Guardian of the South Gate
  3. Xia Dali, Guardian of the West Gate
  4. Che Zi, Guardian of the East Gate
  5. Meng E, Ghost Interrogating General
  6. Wang Jian, Ghost Flailing General
  7. Liu Chu, Ghost Restraining General
  8. Wei Tin, Ghost Capturing General

Eight Generals of the Outer Alter of Fengdu

  1. Jia Taoyuan
  2. Chang Yuan
  3. Liu Yuanfu
  4. Du YuanZhen
  5. Fan YuanZhang
  6. Li Yuande
  7. Chen Yuanqing
  8. Zhang Yuanlian

Ten Masters of the Underworld

  1. Guaiwang (responsible for Hungry Ghosts)
  2. Yusai (responsible for fishes)
  3. Paowei (responsible for animals)
  4. Huangfeng (responsible for insects)
  5. Bai Wuchang (White Impermanence)
  6. He Wuchang (Black Impermanence)
  7. Fan Wujiu, Wondering God of the Night
  8. Xie Bian, Wondering God of the Day
  9. Luo Cha, Horse Face
  10. A Bang, Bull Head

Four Strongmen of Fengdu

  1. Tang Bocheng, Ghost-smiting Strongman
  2. Sun Zhongwu, Demon-smiting Strongman
  3. Hu Wenzhong, Tri-day Strongman
  4. Zhang Yuanzhen, Taiyi Strongman

Two Agents of Fengdu

  1. Liu Guangzhong, Great God of the Black Fog
  2. Xun Gongda, Great God of the Black Sky

Wardens of the Nine Prison of Fengdu

  • Wang Tong
  • Wu Yan
  • Kong Sheng
  • Diao Xiao
  • Zhou Sheng
  • Shi Tong
  • Yao Quan
  • Zhen Yan
  • Wang Yuanzhen