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Mughal Empire India

  • The Mughal Empire ruled India in the 16th and 17th centuries. It strengthened Islam in Southern Asia and propagated Muslim faith as well as culture and arts.
  • The Mughals centralised government which united several smaller kingdoms. They mixed Persian language with Arabic and Hindi to create Urdu language. The Mughals evolved a system of education which took into consideration pupils’ requirements and culture.
  • Economic policies of the Mughals enabled artisans and peasants to get into bigger markets. The peace maintained by them was the main reason for economic expansion of India during 17th century which resulted in patronage of architecture, textiles, literary forms and painting. During Mughal rule, new Indian political and commercial elites developed because of expanding commerce.
  • With the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne in 1556, the "classic period" of the empire began. Under Akbar and his son Jahangir, India had religious harmony and economic growth. The monarchs took interest in local cultural and religious traditions.
  • The reign of Shah Jahan was the golden age of Mughal architecture. He built many big monuments, including the Taj Mahal and Moti Masjid at Agra, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort.
  • The empire was at its peak in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century when it controlled a territory of over 3.2 million square kilometres and a quarter of the world's population.
  • The empire's collapse ensued after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 under incompetent rulers. The defeat in the Deccan Wars encouraged the Shah of Afghanistan and Nizam of Hyderabad and the Nawabs of Rampur, Carnatic, Oudh, Bhopal and Bengal to declare their unilateral independence from the Mughals. Eventually the empire dissolved after the fall of Delhi in 1857.

Mughal Empire Period Taj Mahal